Gender / sex differences
Studies and data showing the differences between genders/sexes. Males and females are not the same and not interchangeable.
Here’s the gender gap that matters – Women earned majority of doctoral degrees in 2016 for 8th straight year and outnumber men in grad school 135 to 100
The gender gap in engineering and math is old news by now. Despite society’s strenuous efforts to close it – including giving girls pink Lego sets to play with – nothing seems to work. The percentage of female engineering students remains around 20 per cent, give or take.
Meanwhile, there’s another gender gap that everyone ignores. This one is in the ultra-competitive field of veterinary medicine. Not long ago, all vets were men, and women who aspired to be vets were told to aspire to something else. Scarcely any women were admitted into vet schools before the 1970s. Today the ratio in veterinary school is 80-20 – in favour of women. In 2015, for example, Guelph’s Ontario Veterinary College admitted 83 women and only 18 men.
Oddly, nobody is hollering about discrimination in veterinary medicine. No activists or politicians are lobbying for preferential treatment for men, or preaching about systemic discrimination, or complaining because women win all the scholarly awards. No one gives two hoots about the vets (except for the veterinary schools themselves, which are desperate to recruit more males). The reason is that this particular gender imbalance doesn’t fit the prevailing narrative, which is that women in historically male fields face systemic discrimination at every turn.
The gender gap we talk about incessantly – the one focused on the relatively small number of professions where men still outnumber women – is not the one that matters. The one that matters is the absence of so many men in higher education. Today, women dominate at all levels of education, including the graduate levels. In most postgraduate fields, as well as in law and medicine, women now outperform and outnumber men by growing margins.
Here’s the picture, according to economist Mark Perry writing for the American Enterprise Institute. For every 100 men enrolled in U.S. graduate schools, there are now more than 135 women. In 2016, women earned 57.4 per cent of the masters’ degrees and 52.1 per cent of the doctoral degrees. Women earned more doctoral degrees in seven of the 11 graduate fields tracked by the Council of Graduate Schools, including education, arts and humanities, public administration and biology. Men earned most of the doctoral degrees in only four fields: business, engineering, math and computer science, and physical and earth sciences.
What’s clear from these trends is that educational inequality has worked its way up from elementary school, and is now solidly entrenched at all levels of attainment. This, in an age when higher education and cognitive skills are more important than ever. Why? Surely one reason is the temperamental differences between males and females. Females aim to please; males tend not to give a darn. Females don’t mind sitting still and colouring inside the lines; a lot of men go crazy. The modern world demands the type of social skills that women are very good at. Most young men simply aren’t wired to sit in classrooms until their mid-to-late 20s.
Study finds that women identify more strongly with their own gender whereas men identify equally with either gender
This methodology reveals an unpredicted finding that females identify more strongly with their own gender whereas males identify equally with either gender. This echoes other research findings from quite different domains, suggesting a general phenomenon.
USA Today race baiting comparing black women’s lower salaries to higher salaries of white non hispanic men – without controlling for actual jobs, time employed, positions held, overtime done, experience etc
Black women in the United States who work full time, year-round are typically paid just 62 cents for every dollar paid to white, non-Hispanic men — and that number has not budged in the last 25 years.
For women overall, the wage gap stands at 82 cents for every dollar paid to men.
This wage gap costs Black women $23,653 a year, according to a new analysis by the National Women’s Law Center. Over a 40-year-career, the wage gap translates to a staggering $946,120.
- Source: https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/us/black-womens-equal-pay-day-highlights-how-black-women-lose-nearly-dollar1m-over-their-careers/ar-BB17SAdx
Among older (19 years and older) subjects, females conformed more with surveillance (other people watching) than without it, whereas surveillance did not affect males’ conformity. Among younger (under 19 years) subjects, surveillance had no effects. Analysis of sex differences revealed that older females were significantly more conforming than older males when under surveillance as well as when subjects formed impressions of one another’s likability. Among younger subjects, there were no sex differences
People more readily stereotype women as victims and men as perpetrators. As a result, harm to women evokes more concern than equivalent harm to men, and people are more inclined to punish male than female perpetrators.
- Victims were assumed to be female and perpetrators were assumed to be male.
- A female (vs male) employee complaining of harassment was seen as more of a victim.
- People desired harsher punishments for male than female perpetrators.
- Managers who fired female (vs male) employees were perceived as less moral.
Informed by moral typecasting theory, we predicted a gender bias in harm evaluation, such that women are more easily categorized as victims and men as perpetrators. Study 1 participants assumed a harmed target was female (versus male), but especially when labeled ‘victim’. Study 2 participants perceived animated shapes perpetuating harm as male and victimized shapes as female. Study 3 participants assumed a female employee claiming harassment was more of a victim than a male employee making identical claims. Female victims were expected to experience more pain from an ambiguous joke and male perpetrators were prescribed harsher punishments (Study 4). Managers were perceived as less moral when firing female (versus male) employees (Study 5). The possibility of gender discrimination intensified the cognitive link between women and victimhood (Study 6). Across six studies in four countries (N = 3,137), harm evaluations were systematically swayed by targets’ gender, suggesting a gender bias in moral typecasting.
Sex differences tend to be larger– not smaller– in more individualistic, gender-egalitarian countries
A large number of well done studies have painted a rather consistent picture of sex differences in personality that are strikingly consistent across cultures (see here, here, and here). It turns out that the most pervasive sex differences are seen at the “narrow” level of personality traits, not the “broad” level (see here for a great example of this basic pattern).
Sex Differences in Tech Tilt vs. Academic Tilt: More males than females exhibit tech tilt (tech > academic); more females than males exhibit academic tilt (academic > tech).
Males showed a tech tilt bias, and females showed an academic tilt bias. The tilt biases persisted after controlling for general intelligence
Tech tilt correlated negatively with academic abilities on the college aptitude tests (SAT, ACT, PSAT), with larger effects for females. In addition, relations of tech tilt with STEM jobs and majors were generally larger (and more often significant) for males, but only for tech tilt based on technical and verbal abilities. The negative relations of tech tilt with academic abilities on the college aptitude tests are consistent with investment theories, which predict that investment in one ability (technical) comes at the expense of competing abilities (academic). The sex differences in tech tilt and STEM support trait complexes involving abilities, interests, and vocational preferences (e.g., people versus things).
Wage gap is not “about men and women doing similar work for different pay, but about men and women pursuing different careers”.
Teachers are more lenient in their marking of girls’ schoolwork, according to an international study. An OECD report on gender in education, across more than 60 countries, found that girls receive higher marks compared with boys of the same ability. Differences in school results can sometimes “have little to do with ability”, says the study.
The OECD study, examining gender inequality in education, says that girls can be put off careers in science because of a lack of self-confidence and negative stereotypes.
He says that “gender differences in self-confidence” could be the key difference. Even though girls might achieve better academic results, there is still a reluctance to apply for jobs.
The very lowest achieving pupils in maths, reading and science are much more likely to be boys and these male underachievers are much more likely to leave school early and end up without any qualifications.
Boys v. girls
- Lowest achievers more likely to be boys
- Boys more likely to be very highest achievers in maths and science
- Teachers give girls higher marks than boys of a similar ability
- Boys far behind girls at reading while at school, but gap closes among adults
- Girls less likely to consider careers in maths and science
Dr. Johan Grant was removed from teaching a psychology course as a result of complaints from several female students who felt offended
One course module, the so-called Externatet, of the program for future psychologists at Lund University, Sweden, centered around the theme “Where is dad?,” which turned out to be more problematic than one might have thought. Several female students perceived the theme as sexist, and a lesbian student viewed it as excluding and “homophobic.” Some even reacted with depression and anxiety attacks, which in one case reportedly “lasted several months.”
Johan Grant has commented on the matter in a student magazine. According to him, the course is about challenging three notions that he believes to contradict science: 1) being exposed to difficulties harms people rather than strengthens them, 2) emotions are more rational than reason, and 3) life is a struggle between good people and evil people.
On the popular view, there are fewer female than male professors because women’s qualifications weigh lighter than men’s. Yet, according to a striking new study from Umeå University in Sweden the situation is very much the opposite: in the period 2009-2014, new male professors in medicine had 64 percent more publications and no less than 260 percent more citations than new female professors. The study was rejected by five journals without refereeing for being considered, among other things, “inappropriate”, until it was finally published after peer-review in the journal Studies in Higher Education.
During the British Columbia elections in the spring of 2017, Christian activist Bill Whatcott passed out hundreds of flyers notifying people that one of the local candidates for Parliament, Morgane Oger — who claimed to be a woman and dressed as a woman — was actually a man named Ronan Oger. (In fact, up until five years ago, Oger lived relatively normally as a father with his wife and two children.)
Besides self-identifying as a “transgender woman,” Oger was no ordinary candidate. He was vice-president of B.C.’s far-left New Democratic Party (NDP). NDP promotes sexual-radical policies and Oger (as chair of the “Trans Alliance Society”) had personally pushed those issues into the British Columbia schools – which as a Christian Whatcott strongly opposes. Oger was also instrumental in the successful 2016 effort to add “gender identity” non-discrimination to B.C. law.
Concluding, that there are differences in intelligence (IQ) between individuals and groups is not permissible in educational research in Sweden
Distinguished American professor Linda Gottfredson was originally invited to give a keynote lecture at a pedagogy conference in the Swedish city of Gothenburg. Yet, before the conference was about to take place in October this year, she received the message that she had been “uninvited” following protests from other researchers arguing that Gottfredson’s non-egalitarian conclusions contradict the organizer’s ethical standard.
Though their numbers are growing, only 27 percent of all students taking the AP Computer Science exam in the United States are female. The gender gap grows worse from there: Just 18 percent of American computer-science college degrees go to women. This is in the U.S., where many college men proudly describe themselves as “male feminists” and girls are taught they can be anything they want to be.
Meanwhile, in Algeria, 41 percent of college graduates in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math—or STEM, as it’s known—are female. There, employment discrimination against women is rife, and women are often pressured to make amends with their abusive husbands.
According to a report that I covered a few years ago, Jordan, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates were the only three countries in which boys were significantly less likely to feel comfortable working on math problems than girls were. In all of the other nations surveyed, girls were more likely to say they feel “helpless while performing a math problem.”
So what explains the tendency for nations that have traditionally less gender equality to have more women in science and technology than their gender-progressive counterparts do?
According to a new paper published in Psychological Science by the psychologists Gijsbert Stoet, of Leeds Beckett University, and David Geary, of the University of Missouri, it could have to do with the fact that women in countries with higher gender inequality are simply seeking the clearest possible path to financial freedom. And typically, that path leads through STEM professions
“sex difference is stronger in countries with relative income equality and women’s participation in the labor force and politics…”
the *opposite* of what progressives, feminists, social justice warriors predict. (more…)
Gender wage gap favors young women in 147 of 150 top cities compared to men in their peer group – salaries for women were 8% higher
But now there’s evidence that the ship may finally be turning around: according to a new analysis of 2,000 communities by a market research company, in 147 out of 150 of the biggest cities in the U.S., the median full-time salaries of young women are 8% higher than those of the guys in their peer group. In two cities, Atlanta and Memphis, those women are making about 20% more. This squares with earlier research from Queens College, New York, that had suggested that this was happening in major metropolises. But the new study suggests that the gap is bigger than previously thought, with young women in New York City, Los Angeles and San Diego making 17%, 12% and 15% more than their male peers, respectively. And it also holds true even in reasonably small areas like the Raleigh-Durham region and Charlotte in North Carolina (both 14% more), and Jacksonville, Fla. (6%). [article mirror]
Women are not just less happy after the feminist takeover of our culture: they are more depressed than they previously were.
The data is in: women aren’t happy.
- Many more women doctors and lawyers work or would rather work part-time. Polls from 2013 and 2015 show that most mothers with children under 18 would rather work part-time or not work at all if they could swing it.
- Most Dutch women prefer part-time work. Studies show the same thing in Nordic countries, even as feminist journalists puzzle over how this can be in such “enlightened” countries as Sweden.
- In Premarital Sex in America (2011), Mark Regnerus and Jeremy Uecker present data showing that women with higher numbers of lifetime and yearly sex partners are much more likely to be depressed, take antidepressants, and cry every day than women who have fewer partners. The number of partners for men seems mostly unrelated to these factors (see pp. 140-141). They conclude: “The central story about sex and emotional health is how powerful the empirical association is for women—and how weak it is for men” (p. 138). Another study shows that women who have multiple sex partners are 11 times more likely to show signs of depression than virgins.
- Betsey Stevenson and Justin Wolfers observed the “paradox of declining female happiness” in a 2009 article. Their finding: “women’s happiness has fallen both absolutely and relative to men’s in a pervasive way among groups, such that women no longer report being happier than men and, in many instances, now report happiness that is below that of men…this shift has occurred through much of the industrialized world.”
- Women are not just less happy after the feminist takeover of our culture: they are more depressed than they previously were. A 2017 meta-analysis, for instance, finds that about 10% of women are depressed, while only about 5% of men are. The gap is (“counterintuitively,” the authors suggest) bigger in countries that emphasize sexual equality. “In the major depression meta-analysis, gender differences in depression diagnoses were larger in nations where women had more control over their reproduction, held more executive positions, and were more similar to men in literary rates.” Again: “Larger gender differences in major depression were found in nations with greater gender equity and in more recent studies.”
- The same differences are found in a 1989 meta-analysis of studies between 1960-1975, which found that women in advanced countries like the United States and Sweden were two to three times more likely to be depressed while there was no gap in more traditional countries like (at that time) Korea or among immigrant communities such as Mexican-Americans.
- One CDC study shows a 65% increase in anti-depressant use among Americans over the age of 12 between 1999-2014. In 2014, about 16.5% of women and 8.6% of men take such drugs. Use is especially high among white females
- What some scholars call the “gender paradox in suicide”—another paradox!—is that men commit suicide much more often than women, but women attempt suicide much more often than men. About three women self-harm without an intent to die for every man that does.
Fighting ability, although recognized as fundamental to intrasexual competition in many nonhuman species, has received little attention as an explanatory variable in the social sciences. Multiple lines of evidence from archaeology, criminology, anthropology, physiology, and psychology suggest that fighting ability was a crucial aspect of intrasexual competition for ancestral human males, and this has contributed to the evolution of numerous physical and psychological sex differences. Because fighting ability was relevant to many domains of interaction, male psychology should have evolved such that a man’s attitudes and behavioral responses are calibrated according to his formidability. Data are reviewed showing that better fighters feel entitled to better outcomes, set lower thresholds for anger/aggression, have self-favoring political attitudes, and believe more in the utility of warfare. New data are presented showing that among Hollywood actors, those selected for their physical strength (i.e., action stars) are more likely to believe in the utility of warfare.
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